1. Adults couldn't do all the talking
2. The students had to talk about the academic idea at hand
3. They had to use academic vocabulary
4. They had to use evidence: quoting the text, citing a primary source, reasoning through a proof, using experimental evidence.
1. are as curious about wrong answers as they are about right answers -- and they encourage students to make mistakes
2. override accepted social codes.
3. ask questions to encourage reasoning not regurgitation.
4. make their thinking visible.
5. are supported by solid educational infrastructure.